Knowledge

 
How Reducing Inequality Will Make our Cities Safer

Based on a global analysis of the relationship between inequality and urban violence, this World Bank blog post advocates for the reduction of inequality and concentrated disadvantages. In order to improve opportunities across generations and populations, the blog proposes four lessons to reduce urban violence. These lessons are supported by the World Bank’s new “Strategy for Fragility, Conflict and Violence” from 2020 geared toward increasing the World Bank’s cooperation with urban partners in the area of conflict prevention. / Author: Robert Muggah and Sameh Wahba - Publication Date: 2020 - Copyright: World Bank Group

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The Dynamics of Decentralization in the MENA: Processes, Outcomes, and Obstacles

Part of a two-year research project on decentralisation in the MENA region with a focus on the country of Oman, this working paper summarises the discussions of decentralisation researchers from around the MENA region on the design of decentralisation reforms, obstacles, progress and outcomes. In addition, the paper draws on insights collected from Oman by way of a diverse multi-method research design to provide context on how and in what situations citizens from the MENA region turn to state versus non-state institutions. By contributing to the general discussion on decentralisation reforms, this working paper hopes to support the establishment of sustainable scholarly and policy-relevant networks and dialogues concerning these topics./ Publisher: Program on Governance and Local Development at Gothenburg - Publication Date: 2020 - Copyright: Program on Governance and Local Development at Gothenburg

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The “Youth Burden” Needs a New Narrative and How We Respond to Covid-19 in Conflict Zones Can Change it

The “Youth Burden’’ refers to societies characterised by an above average share of young adults and children suffering from high unemployment and a lack of opportunities. By re-framing the “Youth Burden’’ as a chance for locally-grounded, effective and context sensitive responses in line with UN Resolution 2250 on Youth, Peace and Security, Melanie Pinet tries to underscore how young people can contribute to peace processes and crisis response and how they should be included in these processes at both the local and international level. Concrete examples from Mali, Cameroon, South Sudan and Syria are cited to provide context. / Author: Melanie Pinet - Publisher: Overseas Development Institute - Publication Date: 2020 - Copyright: Overseas Development Institute

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Promising Practice: Strengthening Citizen Participation and Local Governance in Benin to Leave No One Behind

In Benin considerable progress has been achieved with decentralisation processes in the last 15 years. However, the transfer of resources and competencies from central to local authorities for basic service provision remains limited, so do possibilities for citizen's participation in local decision-making processes, especially for marginalised persons and groups, such as women, youth and persons with disabilities. The GIZ Programme "Supporting Decentralisation and Municipal Development (PDDC)" – on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) – supports 25 municipalities in enhancing their ability to provide services and aims to improve effective citizen participation in local governance. This Promising Practice describes the measures implemented by the project, its impact and lessons learned./ Publisher: GIZ - Publication Date: 2020 - Copyright: GIZ

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Cambodia’s Property Tax Reform: Policy Considerations Toward Sustained Revenue Mobilization

Asian Development Bank (2020) Over the last twenty years Cambodia has undergone remarkable development concerning its income status. Previously classified as a low-income country, the country attained middle-income status in 2016. The Revenue Mobilization Strategy for 2019 - 2023 aims to further consolidate this process by contributing to transparent taxation of property and land use regulations. This brief by the Asian Development Bank provides an overview of implemented measures and highlights the effects these have on the quality of urban governance in Cambodia.

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Why Do We Need Local Governments in Pandemics?

With local governments at the forefront of fighting the Corona-pandemic, the adequate assumption of responsibilities concerning service delivery by local and regional authorities has become more important than ever. Therefore, this opinion piece by Serdar Yilmaz from the World Bank Group recommends that in matters of governance the subsidiary principle should be followed. According to this principle concrete actions should be taken by the lowest level of government capable of doing so effectively. In support of his argument Yilmaz identifies (at least) three categories of responsibilities that can best be met by local authorities, including the provision of healthcare services, the execution of epidemiological investigations as well as the maintenance of social services and the economy. / Author: Serdar Yilmaz - Publisher: World Bank Group - Publication Date: 2020 - Copyright: World Bank Group

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Africa's Cities: Opening Doors to the World

The World Bank and UKAID (2017) According to the authors of this report prosperity in Africa’s cities is prevented by a lack of adequate regulations and policies as well as missing infrastructure. As a result, land and labour are misallocated, productivity is hampered, and skills are not developed any further. In response the authors recommend that cities specialise in manufacturing, trading with goods and services on a regional and global scale, attracting investments and developing scale economies.

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Rethinking the Ecosystem International City Networks

CIDOB (2019) Beyond the growing influence of cities in shaping global agendas, the ecosystem of city networks has experienced a reconfiguration. This report analyses how the cities’ platform functions, to what extent their impact on global agendas is visible, which services they offer and how cities can coordinate their agendas. By understanding the mechanisms of such networks, their capacities can be extended and their influence for international cooperation increased.

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A World Without Refugee Camps? IIED Launches Research on Urban Refugees

In this article by Lucy Earle, the potential of municipalities to resolve forced displacement within the urban context is explored. Several possibilities are described such as hosting people in urban areas instead of camps. In addition, she describes what awareness raising campaigns can look like and which immediate responses to protracted displacement can be implemented by cities. Earle carves out the potential of municipal authorities to partner with migrants, organisations for marginalised groups or local stakeholders to address forced displacement together.

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The Transition to a Predominantly Urban World

This blogs and interview series by David Satterthwaite, Senior Fellow at IIED, explores aspects of urban change across the globe. In this context questions such as how cities can develop sustainable growth patterns or how they can contribute to inequality are discussed. Every two weeks, Satterthwaite publishes a new blog entry placing a different focus on the large spectrum of issues around urban development each and every time.

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