VNG International's Program to Increase Internally Generated Revenues for Local Development

VNG International (2016)

At this year's DeLoG Annual Meeting Peter Jongkind, VNG International, presented the organisation's new approach to support municipalities to improve their tax collection and service delivery. In doing so, this approach also promotes civic engagement and government accountability. Piloting the approach in municipalities in Ghana, VNG International found that it leads to improvements in tax management and service delivery.

The mobilisation of sub-national revenues is a decisive factor in the realisation of the 2030 Agenda

von Haldenwang, Christian / Armin von Schiller, GDI Briefing Paper 21 (2016)

This paper look at the increasing role of sub-national units in the mobilisation of domestic resources for the 2030 agenda. They are also at the forefront in the implementation of the global reform agenda.

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Revenue Mobilization and Management in Sectors – Background and Case Studies on user fees and charges in selected sectors

Center of Excellence in Finance (CEF) (2016)

The report begins with a background chapter looking at the political economy of revenue raising in line ministries (water, health, environment, traffic). Serbia, Albania, Germany and Moldova contributed case studies, using user fees and charges as the revenue source for examination. Evidently, a number of factors hampered the smooth operation of fees and charges. These problem areas were reasonably consistent across countries and included:


Out-of-date legal bases and fee levels.

A proliferation of fees and charges many of which fail to cover their economic cost of operation.

In some cases a lack of administrative capacity (including IT and payment enforcement capacity).

Varying levels of engagement with those who are expected to pay the fees and charges.

Municipal Pooled Financing of Infrastructure in the United States: Experience and Lessons

Dr. Lili Liu et al., World Bank (2017)

The objective of this knowledge product is to review the legal, institutional and operational frameworks for subnational pooled financing (bond banks) in the United States, focusing on small municipalities, hence to help strengthen the capacity of the World Bank’s advisory services in infrastructure financing. There has been great interest from policymakers in developing countries in learning from the experience of the advanced countries in developing pooled financing facilities. Recently, the World Bank has completed a review of specialized financing vehicles for municipalities in Europe, which includes pooled financing vehicles. The proposed work is to take this line of work further, by reviewing the experience of the United States.

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Making Blended Finance Work for the Sustainable Development Goals

OECD (2018)

Blended finance, an approach that mixes different forms of capital to support development, is emerging as a solution to help deliver the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Paris Agreement. This report of the OECD presents a comprehensive assessment of the state of blended finance and priorities for action to improve its implementation, drawing on surveys, case studies, interviews and desk research.

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Financing Sustainable Urban Development in the Least Developed Countries

UNCDF (2017)

This publication provides an overview of the multi-dimensional challenges Least Developed Countries (LDCs) face in financing sustainable development at the local level from the political, institutional and economic perspectives. It explores the critical interlinkages between the different dimensions of urban finance, including revenue generation, financial management and long-term capital formation. Most importantly, it illustrates concrete country experiences in meeting related challenges through a wide range of case studies from local governments in LDCs. It is designed to promote knowledge sharing among stakeholders in urban finance and local sustainable development and its prime objective is to support government officials in the LDCs at the local and national levels to strengthen their urban finance frameworks and to create an enabling environment in their constituencies.

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Where Will the Money Come From?

IIED (2016)

Since the 1980s, SDI has worked to place the urban poor at the heart of the politics and economics that make modern cities unequal and exclusionary. Through its savings-based city funds and global finance facility, SDI helps communities become the main drivers of change, transforming their slums into safe, secure, affordable neighbourhoods. SDI’s local funds defy conventional housing microfinance, which comprise three segments: organised end users; informal or semiformal financial intermediaries; and the stand-ins for the formal financial sector. This paper looks at how and why SDI has navigated these segments to transform urban areas by monetising social capital through local-level finance institutions.

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Improving the Performance of Sub-national Governments through Benchmarking and Performance Reporting

OECD (2018)

Performance systems are one tool available to central governments to improve the performance of sub-national service delivery. This paper provides a preliminary review of suitable metrics and mechanisms to reliably measure and monitor the efficiency and quality of public services that are provided by sub-national governments. This review aims to conceptualise the challenges associated with measuring public sector inputs, outputs and outcomes and implementing effective performance systems.

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Rethinking Regional Development Policy-Making

This report addresses questions related to the improvement of the design and delivery of regional development policies: What can governments do to enhance economic development in regions and cities ? What lessons can be drawn from theory and practice to ensure public spending and investments contribute to regional development as effectively as possible ? At a time of increasing pressure on public finances it is paramount to enhance the effectiveness of regional policy governance instruments to add value to public spending and investment. Bringing together frontier economic theory and country practices regarding performance frameworks, financial instruments, policy conditionalities, contractual arrangements and behavioural insights in regional policy, this report identifies cross-cutting lessons to help policy-makers manage common trade-offs when designing public expenditure and investment programmes for the development of regions and cities.

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UN-Habitat Municipal Finance Handbook Advances NUA, SDG 11

International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD, 2018)

The UN Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat) has launched a resource guide on municipal finance, highlighting the importance for the implementation of the New Urban Agenda (NUA) and the SDGs, particularly SDG 11 (sustainable cities and communities). The handbook provides city leaders with a range of financing solutions that emphasise sustainability, inclusion and financial autonomy, aiming to contribute to discussions on how cities can finance large capital expenditures, infrastructure maintenance and operation, and public services.

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