Multilevel Governance and COVID-19 Emergency Coordination – Emergency Governance for Cities and Regions

This Analytics Note is the fourth part of a series by the Emergency Governance Initiative (EGI), a joint project by Metropolis, United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG), and LSE Cities. The publication combines the results of case study analysis, desktop research and workshops on multilevel governance and emergency coordination during the COVID-19 pandemic. In complex emergencies, pre-existing patterns of decentralisation determine the subnational governments' ability to influence emergency response strategies. There is evidence that sectors, such as health and economic development tend to become more centralised. Others, such as security and environment, tend to maintain a decentralised approach.

Author: UCLG, Metropolis, LSE cities
Publisher: UCLG, Metropolis, LSE cities
Publication date: 2021
Copywrite: UCLG, Metropolis, LSE cities

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Fiscal Federalism 2022: Making Decentralisation Work

The publication Fiscal Federalism 2022 presents recent trends and policies in intergovernmental fiscal relations and subnational government. It highlights good practices in fiscal federalism; the design of fiscal equalisation systems; measuring subnational tax and spending autonomy; promoting public sector performance across levels of government; digitalisation challenges and opportunities; the role of subnational accounting and insolvency frameworks; funding and financing of local government public investment; and early lessons from the COVID-19 crisis for intergovernmental fiscal relations.

Author: OECD
Publisher: OECD
Publication Date: 2021
Copyright: OECD

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Building Climate Resilient and Sustainable Cities for All

People living in informal settlements are disproportionately affected by the impacts of climate change due to their exposure and physical, social, and economic vulnerability. Addressing urban inequality and informality musth therefore start by building city resilience, unlocking mitigation potential, and making urbanisation sustainable for all. This report sets out how climate change and informality are intertwined and cause of urban poverty. Cities Alliance' approaches and projects described here also provide key evidence of the challenges and opportunities of tackling climate change and bolstering adaptation where it matters most: in urban informal settlements in rapidly urbanising countries.

Author: Cities Alliance
Publisher: Cities Alliance
Publication Date: 2021
Copyright: Cities Alliance

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The Missing Link: Improving Urban Informal Resilience Through Climate Action

Resilience is often defined as the ability of “individuals, communities and states and their institutions to absorb and recover from shocks, whilst positively adapting and transforming their structures and means for living in the face of long-term changes and uncertainty'' (OECD, 2013). Resilience is usually associated with the city. Yet the places where communities live, work and take care of each other do not end at a city’s borders. Traditional city boundaries are becoming less meaningful and coordination between diverse areas and levels of government at the metropolitan level is more essential than ever to ensure sustainable places, services and infrastructure. The COVID-19 pandemic has demonstrated the need to rethink current urban governance systems. This paper is pledging for concerted efforts from the international community and by governments in line with funds in order to build more sustainable, resilient and inclusive cities and building stronger urban-rural linkages.

Author: Pietro Ceppi
Publisher: Urban Resilience Hub, UN-Habitat
Publication Date: 2021
Urban Resilience Hub, UN-Habitat

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IDPs in Secondary Cities: The Case of Adama, Ethiopia

The case study of Adama, Ethiopia, highlights how local government can successfully respond to urban IDPs. Adama’s city government showed regional cooperation by receiving over 1,300 IDP families at very short notice and facilitating the building of houses, a school and crucial infrastructure for them. The location and administration of IDP and refugee settlements has strong impacts on development efforts and long-term integration. The need to support IDPs and integrate them in order to overcome social challenges such as religious difference and competition for employment, is just one of the many insights and recommendations the study provides. Best practices and lessons learned on mechanisms to support the social integration with local hosts can also be found in this paper.

Author: Evan Easton-Calabria, Delina Abadi and Gezahegn Gebremedhin
Publisher: Cities Alliance, SDC, University of Oxford
Publication Date: 2021
Copyright: Cities Alliance, SDC, University of Oxford

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Gender and Local Governments

With this publication the International Centre for the Advancement of Human Rights (CIPDH-UNESCO) provides an insightful digital guide on Gender and Local Governments. It will serve as a resource to inform local governments in Latin America and the Caribbean. The information and policy implications addressed in this paper range from discriminatory issues faced by women in Latin America and the Caribbean, along with actions and policies aimed at achieving gender equity and inclusion. There are also case studies documenting initiatives that have been already implemented by local governments to address these issues including results and lessons learned.
Only available in Spanish!

Authors: María del Carmen Feijoó, María Eugenia Sozzani y Carolina Tellería
Publisher: CIPDH – UNESCO
Publication Date: 2021

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SDG Localisation Baseline: How Local-Level Actors are Driving Change and Advancing the Achievement of the 2030 Agenda

This paper by the Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) wants to inform decisions regarding the response to the pandemic around the world. Thereby aiming at an inclusive and resilient plan to help actors reconstruct and improve their communities. This baseline report uncoveres the important challenges and opportunities for the local implementation of the SDGs that relate to the broader themes of advocacy, action, and monitoring. In addition, this effort builds on the New Urban Agenda, which functions as an accelerator of the SDGs, being emphatic about making cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient, and sustainable. The report raises awareness of the need for and importance of generating localised actions at the local level. 

Authors: Orozco, E. H., Cárdenas, M., Lobos Alva, I., Guerra, A., Gerger Swartling, Å., Betancur, J., Joshi, S., Melati, K., Otieno Opiyo, R., Kim, D., Pearson, L., Esquivel, N. N., Kabue Njoroge, G. and Ek, F.
Publisher: Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI)
Publication Date: 2021
Copyright: Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI)

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Guidelines for Voluntary Local Reviews Volume 2 - Exploring the Local-National Link

UCLG and UN-Habitat have designed tools, methods and institutional opportunities to support local and regional governments in engaging with the global agendas and the localisation of these common goals. Volume 2 of the VLR Series, the Guidelines for Voluntary Local Reviews, provides an overview and analysis of how the linkage between national and local levels is playing out. VNRs and VLRs are inherently complimentary, but these Guidelines guide a way to merge them constructively. This Volume explores to what degree the local level, the localisation of the SDGs and the untapped potential of local action are acknowledged in national reviews.

Publisher: UCLG and UN-Habitat
Publication Date: 2021
Copyright: UCLG and UN-Habitat

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A “Decade for Action” on SDG Localisation

This paper echoes the UN-General Secretary's call for a ''Decade of Action''. With local governments at the forefront of fighting the COVID-19 pandemic, the adequate assumption of responsibilities concerning service delivery by local and regional authorities has become more important than ever. This study highlights that the expansion of human well-being, in terms of capabilities, and the pursuit of sustainable human development and transformative resilience is inherently linked to multilevel governance mechanisms. All levels and sectors must engage with and commit to the aim of fostering sustainable development and social empowerment.

Author: Mario Biggeri
Publisher: Journal of Human Development and Capabilities, Routledge 
Publication Date: 2021
Copyright: Journal of Human Development and Capabilities, Routledge 

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NALAS Fiscal Decentralisation Indicators Report

NALAS eight edition of the Fiscal Decentralisation report focuses in particular on the regulation, management and financing of decentralised social sector services in South-East Europe. The report provides a comparative overview followed by a detailed analysis of the local government responsibilities in education, social care and protection and public health in South-East Europe, how they are regulated, managed and financed for all South-East European economies. As the world continues to face the aftermath of COVID-19 and local governments lead recovery efforts, a special chapter is dedicated to the municipal response to COVID-19 in the social sector in South-East Europe. It shows what South-East European local governments have been doing to weather the crisis impact in education, social protection and care and public health. The report also gives an outlook on fiscal decentralisation tendencies in South-East Europe.

Editors: Tony Levitas, Brown University and Elton Stafa, NALAS
Publisher: NALAS
Publication Date: 2021
Copyright: NALAS

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